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What’s the Difference Between Leading, Kerning and Tracking?

By on May 27, 2016 in How To
What’s the Difference Between Leading, Kerning and Tracking?

Before you become famous for creating the next best typeface, you have to learn the basics of typographical design. The first step to perfecting any new font is adjusting the leading, kerning and tracking, which affect the line spacing, letter spacing and text to make it proportional, readable and appealing. What are these essential elements of typographic design? Well, here’s a fairly comprehensive breakdown of each term and how you can adjust them in Photoshop.

Leading

Leading is an essential design aspect that determines how text is spaced vertically in lines. For content that has multiple lines of readable text (like this blog), you'll want to make sure the distance from the bottom of the words above to the top of the words below has appropriate spacing to make them legible.

kerning tracking leadingPin It

The leading is measured from the baseline of each line of text where the letters “sit.” Descenders, the parts of certain letters that are longer, such as a lowercase g, fall below the baseline. Ascenders are the opposite, letters with taller features, such as the letter h. They need to be considered as well when determining the leading distance.

ALTPin It

ALTPin It

Traditionally, leading should be 20 percent greater than the font size; however, individual styles may call for different distances.

How to Adjust Leading in Photoshop

To adjust the leading of your font in Photoshop, open the character palette, located under Window and then Character, and change the number in the leading field. The leading field is next to the type size. Don’t forget to highlight the text you want to change before adjusting it.

kerning tracking leadingPin It

Kerning

Kerning also adjusts space, but of the distance between two letters. Set too closely together, words are indecipherable; set too far apart, and they're awkward to read. Worse yet, if some letters have wider spacing and others narrower, it can be frustrating for someone to read without fully understanding what’s wrong.

kerning tracking leadingPin It

One of the most important aspects of successful kerning is to have proportional spacing between each letter, taking into consideration any serifs or stylistic flourishes that may need special attention. Most of the time, it just takes a keen eye, practice and diligence to kern a font to precision. We've got many, many more kerning tips to share here.

How to Adjust Kerning in Photoshop

You can adjust the kerning of a font in Photoshop through the same character palette that you use for leading. The kerning field is below the type size. It’s generally easier to use shortcuts for kerning, however. Place the cursor between the letters you want to kern and hold down the option key. Use the directional arrows to move the letters right or left until they're perfect.

kerning tracking leadingPin It

Think you're a master kerner? Try this awesome kerning browser game and test your skills.

Tracking

Tracking is often confused for kerning, but the concept is a little different. Tracking involves adjusting the spacing throughout the entire word. Once you've determined the right spacing between each letter, tracking can be used, with great restraint, to change the spacing equally between every letter at once.

Tracking is generally used to fill a space that’s larger or smaller than currently suits the type’s parameters or to make a single word seem airy and impressive. You should be very careful when changing the tracking, as it can quickly lead to difficulty in reading.

kerning tracking leadingPin It

How to Adjust Tracking in Photoshop

In the character palette in Photoshop, you can change the tracking by adjusting the number in the field below kerning. As with kerning, you can select the text you wish to alter and hold down the option key, pressing the directional arrows to adjust.

kerning tracking leadingPin It

Know Your Terms

Whether you're designing a website or a typeface, it's worth knowing these concepts and how to wield them to improve your typography. And we haven't even mentioned font formats, which are essential for a designer's everyday work. Curious? We explained everything you need to know about OTFs and TTFs here. Are there any design terms that have tripped you up in the past? Let us know in the comments below. If you're feeling extra confident, please join our 7-day challenge to become a typography expert.

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8 Comments

  1. FYI: For good tracking sometimes it will help to put your design up site down. You'll better see the space between when you can't read it.

  2. i learned to kern type many years ago, before computers. i had to cut and paste galleys of type on boards. Comes in handy now as a designer using a Mac!

  3. ☝️If you add the "command" key (Mac) to the shortcut it adjusts in increments of 5 times the regular kerning or tracking adjustments.

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